Sten Levander

sten1Curriculum vitae (March 2015)

Sten Levander, born November 28, 1939, in Stockholm.

BA (psychology, mathematics, philosophy),1972
Clinical specialist in psychiatry, 1978, in forensic psychiatry, 1978.
Ph.D., 1979
Assistant professor of Psychiatry, 1980
Psychodynamic psychotherapy license, 1982
Professor pro tempore at the Karolinska Institute/KS, Stockholm, Sweden, 1984
Professor of psychiatry at the University of Trondheim, Norway, 1985-89
Professor of forensic psychiatry at the University ofTrondheim, Norway, 1990-95
Professor of psychiatry at Lund University, Malmö, Sweden, 1989-2006
Visiting professor, Department of Criminology, Malmö university, Sweden, 2010 and onwards.

Clinically active 1966 and onwards.

As clinician I have published a textbook of psychiatry (Studentlitteratur, 2005 and 2007), and written chapters in many antologies / textbooks.

Recently I have completed five reports on Risk assessments by the police (published by Rikspolisstyrelsen). I have just written an education text on Psychiatry for the police (appr 90 pages) which will be published by Rikspolisstyrelsen in 2015.

Over the years I have been very active in respect of the ”Third mission”, i.e., mass media communication.

I have tutored ten MD/PhD students. I am currently the main tutor of two students on the doctorate leval.


Levander, S. (1979). Psychophysiologic differentiation within criminal groups: an approach to the study of psychopathy. M.D. thesis, Stockholm.

In retrospect, this thesis and its eight separate reports, provided a firm theoretical and clinical basis for the new conceptualization of the psychopathy concept and diagnosis, then controversial – particularly in Sweden, today self-evident and fully accepted.


International publications over six decades (sample)

I have published 100+ papers in international journals, streched over six decades, covering many (too many?) themes: this is a sample up to 2015. My main research areas during the last decade has been clinical patient-oriented research on schizophrenia and other neuropsychological disorders, and criminology.

Ekman G, Frankenhaeuser M, Levander S, Mellis I. The influence of intensity and duration of electrical stimulation on subjective variables. Scand J Psychol. 1966;7(1):58-64.

Lidberg L, Schalling D, Levander S. Some characteristics of digital vasomotor activity. Psychophysiology. 1972 Jul;9(4):402-11.

Schalling D, Lidberg L, Levander SE, Dahlin Y. Spontaneous autonomic activity as related to psychopathy. Biol Psychol. 1973;1(2):83-97.

Lagergren K, Levander S. A double-blind study on the effects of piracetam upon perceptual and psychomotor performance at varied heart rates in patients treated with artificial pacemakers. Psychopharmacologia. 1974;39(1):97-104.

Levander SE, Lidberg L, Schalling D. Habituation of the digital vasoconstrictive orienting response. J Exp Psychol. 1974 Apr;102(4):700-5.

Waller D & S Levander (1980): Smoking and vigilance The effects of tobacco smoking on CFF as related to personality and smoking habits. Psychopharmacology, 70,131 136.

Edman G, D Schalling & S Levander (1982): Impulsivity, speed and errors in a reaction time task: A contribution to the construct validity of the concept of impulsivity. Acta Psychologica, 53, 1 8.

Levander S & A Gillner (1982): Metipranolol and Propranolol : No CNS effects of a single oral dose. Psychopharmacology, 76, 359-366.

Bartfai A, S Levander, G Edman, D Schalling & G Sedvall (1983): Skin conductance responses in unmedicated recently admitted schizophrenic patients. Psychophysiology, 20, 180-187.

Bartfai A, S Levander & G Sedvall (1983): Smooth-pursuit eye movements, clinical symptoms, CSF monoamine metabolites and SC habituation in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 971-987.

Bartfai A, S Levander, H Nybäck, BM Berggren & D Schalling (1984): Smooth pursuit eye-tracking, neuro-psychological tests and computed tomography of the brain in schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research, 15, 49 62.

Levander S & Sachs Ch (1984): Effects of central stimulants on cortical and autonomic arousal in narcoleptic patients. Psychophysiology, 22, 24 31.

Bartfai A, G Edman, S Levander, D Schalling & G Sedvall (1984): Bilateral skin conductance activity, clinical symptoms, and CSF monoamine metabolites in unmedicated schizophrenics, differing in rate of habituation. Biological Psychology, 18, 201-218.

Levander S, Hägermark Ö & Ståhle M (1985) Peripheral antihistamine vs central sedative effects of three H1-receptor antagonists. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 28, 523 529.

Edman G, M Åsberg, S Levander & D Schalling (1986): Skin conductance habituation and cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in suicidal patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 586-592.

Jönsson B, S Espmark, S Levander H Björvell & S Rössner (1986):Psychiatric determinants of wheight changes in jaw-fixedobese patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 73,196-202.

Levander, S., Mattsson, Å., Schalling, D., & Dalteg, A. (1987). Psychoendocrine patterns within a group of male juvenile delinquents as related to early psychosocial stress, diagnostic classification and follow up data. In Magnusson, D & Öhman, A (eds). Psychopathology An Interactional Perspective. London: Academic Press

af Klinteberg B, S Levander, L Oreland, M Åsberg & D Schalling (1987): Neuropsychological correlates of platelet MAO activity in female and male subjects. Biological Psychology, 24, 237-252.

Levander S & Sachs Ch (1987): Arousal and personality traits: Effects of central stimulants in narcolepsy. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 365 370.

Levander M, S Levander & D Schalling (1989): Hand preference and sex as determinants of neuropsychological skill, solving strategy and side preference. Intelligence, 13, 87-105.

Bartfai A, A Wirsen, S Levander & D Schalling (1989). Eye tracking dysfunction in healthy volunteers: A vulnerability marker associated with poor performance on neuro-psychological tasks and childhood reading disability. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 44, 212-217.

Bartfai, A., Wirsén, A., Levander, S., Schalling, D. (1989). Smooth pursuit eye-tracking and neuropsychological performance in healthy volunteers – Exploring a possible genetic marker for vulnerability to schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 80, 479-486.

Mindus P, Bergström K, Levander S, Norén G, Hindmarsh T, Thuomas KA. Magnetic resonance images related to clinical outcome after psychosurgical intervention in severe anxiety disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 Oct;50(10):1288-93.

Ghatan, P.H., Hsieh, J.-C., Wirsén Meurling, A., Wredling, R., Eriksson, L., Stone-Elander, S., Levander, S. & Ingvar, M. (1995). Brain activation induced by the Perceptual Maze Test: A PET study of cognitive performance. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 15, suppl. 1, S854.

Gråwe RW & Levander S (1995). Smooth pursuit eye movements and neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 92:108-114.

Rasmussen K, Levander S & Sletvold H (1995). Aggressive and non-aggressive schizophrenics: symptom profile and neuropsychological differences. Psychology, Crime & Law, 2:119-129.

Tuninger E & Levander S (1996). Large variations of plasma levels during maintenance with depot neuroleptics. Br J Psychiatry 169, 618-621.

Rasmussen K & Levander S (1996). Individual rather than situational characteristics predict violence in a maximum security hospital. J Interpersonal Violence, 11:376-390.

Dalteg A & Levander S. 12 000 crimes by 75 boys (1998). Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 9, 39-57 (1998).

Nilsson L-L & Levander S (1998). Quality of life and schizophrenia: No subjective differences among four living conditions. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry.

Nilsson LL, Gråwe R, Levander S & Lövaas, AL (1998). Efficacy of conversational skills training of schizophrenic patients in Sweden and Norway. International Review of Psychiatry, 10, 22-28.

Rasmussen, K., Almvik, R. & Levander, S. (2001). AD/HD, reading disability, and personality disorders in a prison population. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 29, 186-93.

Portala K, Levander S, Westermark K, Ekselius L, von Knorring L. Pattern of neuropsychological deficits in patients with treated Wilson’s disease. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001 Dec;251(6):262-8. PubMed PMID: 11881839.

Rask M & Levander S (2001). Interventions in the Nurse-Patient Relation, in Forensic Psychiatric Nursing Care. A Swedish Survey. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 8, 323-333.

Eberhard, J., Riley, F., & Levander, S. (2003). Premorbid IQ and Schizoprenia – ”Increasing cognitive reduction by episodes”. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 253. 84-88.

Jensen J, Nilsson LL, Levander S. Neurocognitive and psychopathological correlates of self-monitoring ability in schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004 Oct;254(5):312-7. PubMed PMID: 15365706.

Lögdberg B, Nilsson LL, Levander MT, Levander S. Schizophrenia, neighbourhood, and crime. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004 Aug;110(2):92-7. PubMed PMID: 15233709.

Lublin H, Eberhard J, Levander S. Current therapy issues and unmet clinical needs in the treatment of schizophrenia: a review of the new generation antipsychotics. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jul;20(4):183-98. Review. PubMed PMID: 15933479.

Douglas KS, Strand S, Belfrage H, Fransson G, Levander S. Reliability and Validity Evaluation of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples. Assessment. 2005 Jun;12(2):145-61. PubMed PMID: 15914717.

Lindström E, Levander S (2006). Sertindole: efficacy and safety in schizophrenia. Expert Opin. Pharmacother., 7 1825-34.

Lindström E, Eberhard J, Levander S (2007). Five-year follow-up during antipsychotic treatment: efficacy, safety, functional and social outcome. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007;(435):5-16.


Publications 2009 and onwards (fairly complete)

Tropp M, Lundqvist A, Persson C, Samuelsson K, Levander S. Self-ratings of Everyday Memory Problems in Patients with Acquired Brain Injury – A Tool for Rehabilitation
Int J Phys Medicine and Rehab, 2015, in press.

Rasmussen K, Palmstierna T, Levander S. Naturalistic study of the long-term impact of stimulant treatment in attention deficit disorders on psychiatric problems, personality disorders and criminality. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2015, in press.

Nielsen RE , Levander S, Kjaersdam Telléus G, Jensen SO, Østergaard Christensen T, Leucht S. Second-generation antipsychotic effect on cognition in patients with schizophrenia-a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Jan 16. doi: 10.1111/acps.12374. [Epub ahead of print]

Nielsen RE, Lindström E, Telléus GK, Levander S. Is the PANSS cognitive scale measuring cognition? Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24724929.

Dalteg A, Zandelin A, Tuninger E, Levander S. Psychosis in adulthood is associated with high rates of ADHD and CD problems during childhood. Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24620816.

Levander S. [Neither God nor The National Board of Health and Welfare can be subjected to review]. Lakartidningen. 2013 Jun 5-18;110(23-24):1168-9. Swedish. PubMed PMID: 23847872.

Stjernswärd S, Persson K, Nielsen R, Tuninger E, Levander S. A modified Drug Attitude Inventory used in long-term patients in sheltered housing. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Oct;23(10):1296-9.

Dåderman AM, Meurling AW, Levander S. ‘Speedy action over goal orientation': cognitive impulsivity in male forensic patients with dyslexia. Dyslexia. 2012 Nov;18(4):226-35. doi: 10.1002/dys.1444. PubMed PMID: 23059751.

Nielsen RE, Lindström E, Nielsen J, Levander S. DAI-10 is as good as DAI-30 in schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Oct;22(10):747-50. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.02.008. Epub 2012 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 22440974.

Nielsen RE, Levander S, Thode D, Nielsen J. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 Jul;126(1):31-9. PubMed PMID: 22356584.

Andersson F, Levander S, Svensson R, Levander MT. Sex differences in offending trajectories in a Swedish cohort. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2012 Apr;22(2):108-21. doi: 10.1002/cbm.1822. Epub 2012 Feb 6. PubMed PMID: 22311379.

Lindström E, Koernig T, Tuninger E, Levander S. Development and validation of the Fast Assessment in Acute Treatment of Psychosis-Observation Rating Scale (FAST-O). Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2011 Sep;15(3):180-95. PubMed PMID: 22121928.

Lindström E, Tuninger E, Levander S. PECC–factor structure and findings in three longitudinal cohorts of patients with schizophrenia. Nord J Psychiatry, 2012 Feb;66(1):33-9. PubMed PMID: 21958348.

Lindström E, Eriksson L, Levander S. Suicides during 7 years among a catchment area cohort of patients with psychoses. Nord J Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;66(1):8-13. PubMed PMID: 21958235.

Vares M, Saetre P, Strålin P, Levander S, Lindström E, Jönsson EG. Concomitant medication of psychoses in a lifetime perspective. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jun-Jul;26(4-5):322-31. PubMed PMID: 21695733.

Ivert AK, Svensson R, Adler H, Levander S, Rydelius PA, Torstensson Levander M. Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011 Mar 7;5(1):6. PubMed PMID: 21385366.

Jönsson EG, Saetre P, Vares M, Strålin P, Levander S, Lindström E. Use of antipsychotics: an analysis of lifetime treatment in 66 patients with psychoses. Psychiatry Res. 2011 May 15;187(1-2):80-8. PubMed PMID: 21095015

Dåderman AM, Edman G, Meurling AW, Levander S, Kristiansson M. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders. Nord J Psychiatry. 2012 Apr;66(2):131-40. PubMed PMID: 20887237.

Höglund P, Levander S, Anckarsäter H, Radovic S. Accountability and psychiatric disorders: how do forensic psychiatric professionals think? Int J Law Psychiatry. 2009 Nov-Dec;32(6):355-61. PubMed PMID: 19811835.

Tuninger E, Levander S. [New legislation on involuntary commitment: one law or two?]. Lakartidningen. 2009 Jun 24-Jul 7;106(26-27):1704-5. Swedish. PubMed PMID: 19731729.

Eberhard J, Levander S, Lindström E. Remission in schizophrenia: analysis in a naturalistic setting. Compr Psychiatry. 2009 May-Jun;50(3):200-8. PubMed PMID: 19374962.

Lindström E, Jedenius E, Levander S. A symptom self-rating scale for schizophrenia (4S): psychometric properties, reliability and validity. Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(5):368-74; suppl 1-4. PubMed PMID: 19306156.

Persson CM, Wallin AK, Levander S, Minthon L. Changes in cognitive domains during three years in patients with Alzheimer’s disease treated with donepezil. BMC Neurol. 2009 Feb 10;9:7. PubMed PMID: 19208247.

Rasmussen K, Levander S. Untreated ADHD in adults: are there sex differences in symptoms, comorbidity, and impairment? J Atten Disord. 2009 Jan;12(4):353-60. PubMed PMID: 18367759.